In order to achieve proper motility of ingested material through this complex system, muscular activity must be under strong spatiotemporal regulation. Individual cell models plug into the tissue scale models providing the ionic activity induced electrical current. Thomas and coworkers proposed a whole modeling environment SAPHIR to model blood pressure regulation and fluid homeostasis.
Computational oncology is another area where multiscale modeling is being used extensively. For a general review on the topic, see Deisboeck et al. Rim et al. Another important application area is the modeling of organogenesis and growth processes. Newman et al. Last, the models motivated by the need to determine the effect of processes at radically different scale are the probably the most challenging, and intellectually interesting, as they look directly at the complexity of multiscale systems.
In the survey conducted here on the literature on multiscale modeling in biomechanics, we reviewed 72 studies motivated by causal confirmation, 12 studies aiming at predictive accuracy, and only one demonstrating determination of effect across scales Table 3. Although the present review is not exhaustive, this relative multiplicity is representative of the body of research in the subdomain of multiscale modeling in biomechanics. By focusing on the progress made beyond causal confirmation, we showed how in some research problems, a particular scale separation schema has gained wider acceptance through validation.
This highlights focus areas for future experimental research. Finally, this review of current research reveals that, from basic biology to medicine, multiscale modeling in biomechanics is relevant to a variety of other research areas, and is expected to become more so in the future. Bone remodeling: A multiscale model to predict the evolution of bone mineral content as measured in a given bone volume, using bone remodeling activity parameters measured on the same specimen PA2.
Fracture healing: A multiscale model to predict tip cell movement and sprout formation as measured within a bone fracture site volume, using intracellular and tissue scale parameters measured on the same specimen PA3. Skeletal muscle remodeling: A multiscale model to predict the shortening of the gastrocnemius muscle as measured on a subject, using sarcomere scale parameters measured on the same subject PA4.
Tendon homeostasis: A multiscale model to predict whole tendon remodeling as measured on a subject, using tissue and molecular scale measured on the same subject PA5. Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis: A multiscale model to predict measured angiogenesis and vasculogenesis based on measured subcellular, cellular and molecular scale parameters PA8.
Cerebral autoregulation in CPB: A multiscale model to predict the measured cerebral autoregulation, using the measured elasticity of vessel walls on the same cardiac system PA9. Volume 9 , Issue 3. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
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Abstract More and more frequently, computational biomechanics deals with problems where the portion of physical reality to be modeled spans over such a large range of spatial and temporal dimensions, that it is impossible to represent it as a single space—time continuum.
Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Incidence of multiscale papers indexed in PubMed from to Definitions The definition of scale varies widely depending on the context; in its simplest instance, it can be defined in term of grain and extent, both in space and time.
For the purpose of this study, we define a model as any causal quantitative relation M between an input set I and an output set O, so that:. Structure The biomechanical multiscale modeling literature is highly heterogeneous, and presents regularities only if you compare papers dealing with the same problem.
Causal Confirmation Bone Mechanics The goal of predicting whole bone mechanics from information on bone material and structural composition is motivated by its clinical relevance in fracture prediction. Bone Adaptation and Remodeling The process of natural bone adaptation bone remodeling is driven by underlying cellular processes which are in turn influenced by biochemical and mechanosensitive activation.
Fracture Healing Multiscale models of osteogenesis in order to predict fracture healing are another line of research where predictive accuracy is yet to be demonstrated. Skeletal Muscle Remodeling Similar to the mechanobiology approach to bone remodeling, the remodeling and adaptation of skeletal muscle has received considerable attention see the recent review by Wisdom et al. Tendon Homeostasis Biochemical and biomechanical factors that affect Achilles tendon homeostasis were reviewed by Smith et al. Mineralized Tendon Mechanics Avian tendon tissue is known to mineralize under physiological conditions.
Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Reprinted with permission from Ref Open Problems Motivated by Predictive Accuracy For each multiscale model in musculoskeletal MSK biomechanics that is motivated by causal confirmation there exists an open problem that is motivated by predictive accuracy PA , which has a stricter demand in terms of model validation.
Predictive Accuracy Bone Mechanics Predictive accuracy of multiscale modeling of bone mechanics was demonstrated in the work of Hellmich and coworkers 35 , where the bone material is considered a hierarchically organized composite of hydroxyapatite HA crystals, collagen and water Figure 3. Figure 3 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Copyright Elsevier.
Multiscale Modeling in Computational Biomechanics - Europe PMC Article - Europe PMC
Skeletal Muscle Electromechanics Models of the electromechanical behavior of skeletal muscle can be used to assess the risk of muscular degeneration, 39 or to better design functional electrical stimulation interventions used in treatment and rehabilitation. Figure 4 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Complete model of the muscle exhibits three blocks. Open Problems Motivated by Determination of Effect As before, we pose open problems in multiscale modeling in musculoskeletal biomechanics motivated by determination of effect DE. Summary The discussion in this section showed that most of the work in multiscale modeling of musculoskeletal biomechanics has been motivated by causal confirmation.
For each application first column , the following scales are detailed in columns 2—4: the smallest scale S1, the scale S2 at which model prediction is desired, all other scales. For each scale, the inputs I used in the multiscale model are listed. For scale S2, the set of variables to be predicted O are also listed. For each multiscale modeling application, the component models at each scale, and relation models between the scales, are indicated in the last two columns. Causal Confirmation Blood Flow Interaction with Blood Vessel Walls The understanding of the interaction between blood flow and the blood vessel walls is essential for several medical problems such as aneurysms and atherosclerosis.
Blood Flow Interaction with Blood Coagulation Blood coagulates in response to a rupture of a blood vessel that can potentially lead to loss of blood. Cellular Mechanics in Blood Flow Erythrocytes, or red blood cells RBCs , transport oxygen and other essential nutrients to the various tissues that the vasculature penetrates through in the human body. Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis The transport of biochemical agents through vasculature controls the growth and maintenance of tissue within which the vasculature penetrates.
Figure 5 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Multiscale model of cardiopulmonary bypass. Cardiomyocyte Mechanics Weinberg et al.
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Heart Valve Mechanics Research interest in the biomechanical function of valves in the different chambers of the heart is motivated by the prediction of diseases such as stenosis and regurgitation and by the need to replace dysfunctional valves. Open Problems Motivated by Predictive Accuracy In a similar manner as before, we pose open problems in multiscale modeling in cardiovascular CV biomechanics motivated by predictive accuracy.
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Computational Biomechanics for Medicine: Deformation and Flow
Figure 7 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Basic topological interactions composing the multilevel model of endotoxin induced human inflammation. Copyright Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Circulation System The influence of the venous system on heart dynamics and circulation has attracted the interest of researchers since the late s. Open Problems Motivated by Determination of Effect In a similar manner as before, we pose open problems in multiscale modeling in cardiovascular CV biomechanics motivated by determination of effect DE.
Figure 8 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. With a nonzero membrane viscosity, the multiscale model compares better with the experimental results. Copyright Cambridge University Press. Summary The discussion in this section showed that most of the work in multiscale modeling of cardiovascular biomechanics has been motivated by causal confirmation. Figure 9 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Different spatial scales identified in the modeling of the gastrointestinal system. Copyright Wiley. Figure 10 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.
Multiscale modeling of lymphatic drainage. BOX 1. BOX 2. Multiscale modelling in biomechanics. Interface Focus , 5 : Crossref PubMed Google Scholar. Google Scholar. Crossref Google Scholar. Citing Literature. Figures References Related Information. These results were compared with clinical study. Surprisingly, the therapeutic treatment is not influenced by the mechanical characteristics of the body structures except the mechanical properties of intervertebral discs.
Discussion : The numerical model can serve as a basis for more in-depth studies concerning the analysis of efficiency of lumbar belts in low back pain. This model could also be used as the basis for a study of the impact of the belt over a period of wearing time. Indeed, the clinical study shows that movement has an important impact on the distribution of pressure applied by the belt. Head impact can cause traumatic brain injury TBI through axonal overstretch or subsequent inflammation and understanding the biomechanics of the impact event is useful for TBI prevention research.
Tagged magnetic resonance imaging MRI acquired during a mild-acceleration impact has enabled measurement and visualization of brain deformation in vivo. However, measurements using MRI are subject to error, and having independent validation while imaging in vivo is very difficult. Thus, characterizing the accuracy of these measurements needs to be done in a separate experiment using a phantom where a gold standard is available. This study describes a method for error quantification using a calibration phantom compatible with MRI and high-speed video the gold standard.
The mean displacement error against video was 0. To match resolutions, video data was filtered temporally using an averaging filter. In conclusion, tagged MRI analysis compares well to video data provided that resolutions are matched—a finding that is also applicable when using MRI to validate simulations. Arnold D. Gomez, Andrew K. Knutsen, Dzung L.
Pham, Philip V. Bayly, Jerry L. Needle insertion placement into human body organs is a frequently performed procedure in clinical practice. Its success largely depends on the accuracy with which the needle tip reaches the anatomical target. As the tissue deforms due to interactions with the needle, the target tends to change its position. One possible way to decrease the risk of missing the target can be to account for tissue deformations when planning the needle insertion.
This can be achieved by employing computational biomechanics models to predict the tissue deformations. In this study, for computing the tissue deformations due to needle insertion, we employed a meshless formulation of computational mechanics that uses a spatial discretisation in a form of a cloud of points. For modelling of interactions between the needle and soft tissues, we propose a kinematic approach that directly links deformation of the tissue adjacent to the needle with the needle motion.
This approach does not require any assumptions about the exact mechanisms of such interactions. For modelling of the constitutive responses of Sylgard gel, we used the neo-Hookean hyperelastic material model with the shear modulus experimentally determined from compression of Sylgard gel samples. The general behaviour of the needle force—insertion depth relationship was correctly predicted by our framework that combines a meshless method of computational mechanics for computing the deformations and kinematic approach for modelling the interactions between the needle and soft tissues.
These differences require further analysis. One possible explanation can be that the neo-Hookean material model we used here may not be sufficient to correctly represent Sylgard gel constitutive behaviour. Singh, Karol Miller.
Osteonecrosis occurs due to the loss of blood supply to the bone, leading to spontaneous death of the trabecular bone. Delayed treatment of the involved patients results in collapse of the femoral head, which leads to a need for total hip arthroplasty surgery. Core decompression, as the most popular technique for treatment of the osteonecrosis, includes removal of the lesion area by drilling a straight tunnel to the lesion, debriding the dead bone and replacing it with bone substitutes.
However, there are two drawbacks for this treatment method. Efficient parallel solution methods for mortar finite element discretizations in computational contact mechanics. An adjoint approach for inverse analysis in photoacoustic imaging using the hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin method. A face-oriented stabilized XFEM approach for convection dominated flow problems using cut elements. Smoothing of the nonlinear complementarity problem for finite deformation contact problems.
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An optimized end-to-end process for the analysis of agile Earth observation satellite missions. Symposium on Multiscale modeling and uncertainty quantification of materials and structures, Santorini Island, Greece. Algebraic multigrid AMG methods for saddle point problems arising from mortar-based finite element discretizations. Fourth deal. A robust method for handling embedded interfaces in complex fluid and fluid-structure -contact interaction problems. Acurate, efficient and robust numerical integration of weak forms over polyhedral shaped cut elements in Embedded Interface Methods.
Improved robustness and efficiency of mortar-based FE discretizations for nonlinear contact problems. Towards algebraic multigrid methods for mortar-based finite element discretizations in contact mechanics. Personalization of cardiac fiber orientations from image data using the Unscented Kalman Filter. A stable and clinically relevant approach for coupled multi-field and multi-dimensional simulations in cardiovascular and respiratory biomechanics.
A general approach for modeling porous flow structure interaction under finite deformations including passive scalar transport. A temporal consistent monolithic approach to fluid-structure interaction enabling field specific predictors. A coupled and multi-scale fluid-structure interaction and mass transfer model for biofilm growth simulations. Advanced and comprehensive modeling of the respiratory system — Physiological flow, tissue deformation and transport phenomena.
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