In anticipatory resoluteness, my fortitude in facing up to the inevitability of death provides the key to unlock the set of possibilities distinctly my own. My situation brings me into the situation of my existence as a whole. In Being and Time, Heidegger formulates four theses with regard to temporality: 1 Temporality is constitutive for being of human existence or care; 2 temporality is ecstatic; 3 temporality exhibits a circular movement, arising originally from the future, returning from the past, and unfolding in the present; and 4 primordial time is finite.
The structure of care as a whole is being-ahead-of-itself-already-ina-world as being-with others. In its being-already, having been announces itself. Its being-with is actualized through the unfolding of the present. The primordial unity of the structure of care lies in temporality thesis 1. This self-understanding can occur only if being-there exists in such a way that its most unique possibility can come toward it, and it holds out this coming toward as a possibility.
Only because it is futural, can being-there be originally its having been. Future is the primordial phenomenon of temporality thesis 3. The projection of resoluteness discloses the situation in the moment. Resoluteness projects a temporal expanse or clearing within which we can become who we have to be. Because I disclose my being-there as a moment within the whole of its temporal expansiveness, primordial time is finite thesis 4. Owned existence is the understanding of my finitude, that is, the temporality of my existence.
Temporality always temporalizes possible ways of itself. These different ways are grounded in the uniform structure of care. Temporality emerges and discharges its disclosive potential across the expanse mapped out by these horizonal schema. According to Heidegger, traditional ontology failed to understand the being of being-there from temporality, and thus made it impossible to disclose the meaning of being through its reciprocity with original time. The analysis of the temporality of being-there receives its guidance from, and serves this larger task of undertaking this inquiry into the most perennial of all philosophical questions.
If being-there is temporality through and through, as is its capacity to understand, then the same holds true equally for its possibility of understanding being. To understand something, in this case, being,. Just as we might say that a student understands the subject matter when he or she can express it e. To take a simple example, Heidegger recognized the simple correlation between the tense of the verb e.
Yet, to reap the fruits of this simple insight, it was necessary for Heidegger to develop it simultaneously on a historical front, and explore why its importance had largely eluded the philosophical tradition whose basis it formed. In other words, Heidegger also recognized that although the Greek thinkers understood being in terms of time, they never paused to ask why this was so and hence never explicitly formulated the question of being as such. But this omission was not a simple oversight, but rather gained momentum on its own to result in an increasing neglect for the question of being over the centuries, until the present day, as to slip completely into dormancy.
The first level of forgot-. Heidegger devised this plan in three stages, working back from the insight into temporality that Kant. Although Heidegger delivered several lecture courses after Being and Time, which can be construed as filling out the gaps in this mosaic, only Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics, the first book he published after his magnum opus, can be directly correlated with any of the unpublished divisions. Second, as Heidegger observed later in his famous essay Letter on Humanism , he was hindered by a vestige of the metaphysical language of the past, which prevented him from completing Being and Time according to the design of its original plan.
Third, in his essay On Time and Being which is distinct from the title of the unpublished third division of Part I of Being and Time , Heidegger makes one of his rare admissions of his error of attempting to derive spatiality from temporality. In this way, he suggests that, in. This simultaneous gifting and refusal of being, as Heidegger will later show, constitutes its destiny. By the same token, being-there becomes the clearing in which being reveals itself as the mirror-play of the fourfold of earth and sky, divinities and mortals.
In the summer of , Heidegger returned to Freiburg and presented himself in his Winter Semester —29 lecture course, Introduction to Philosophy, as the man who had brought the phenomenological revolution to its conclusion. It springs from the ever superabundant and ebullient appropriation of being-there itself.
After some intense discussions with Karl Jaspers in Heidelberg, Heidegger gave up his attempt to finish the unpublished part of Being of Being and Time, although he would still publish Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics in The turning along this path of thinking is the key to his philosophical development and begins to take momentum in this inaugural lecture in , What Is Metaphysics? Heidegger delivered his inaugural lecture on 24 July , in the assembly hall of the University of Freiburg. It was published the same year. In his lecture, Heidegger takes up a particular metaphysical question: Why are there entities at all and not rather nothing?
In the first part of the lecture, Heidegger distinguishes sharply between science and metaphysics. In metaphysics, each question is itself always the whole. Metaphysics must be posed as a whole from the essential position of the entity, specifically, being-there, who questions. Although there are many different fields of inquiry in science, we always approach what is essential in all things.
In the pursuit of science, human being irrupts into the whole of entities, in such a way that the irruption breaks open and shows what entities are in their being. In science, the questioner remains outside the objective field of study and does not question himself. Science wishes to know nothing of the nothing. And yet, when it tries to express its basis—that is, the study of entities and nothing else—it calls upon nothing for help.
In this duplicitous state of affairs, a question has already unfolded: How is it with nothing? Heidegger elaborates the question of the nothing in the second part of his lecture. Heidegger defines the nothing as the complete negation of the totality of entities and can then ask how entities in the whole can be given to us. Being-there finds itself in the midst of entities in the whole.
Although we concern ourselves first and foremost in our everydayness within particular entities, entities in the whole may become manifest in certain moods, for example, deep boredom. Heidegger describes how entities conceal from us the nothing the moment we come face-to-face with them. Is there an attunement in which we may be brought before the nothing itself? Heidegger can now point to anxiety as the mood that makes the nothing manifest. In the third part, Heidegger answers the question of how it is with the nothing. The nothing reveals itself in anxiety but not as an entity.
In anxiety, human beings shrink back before the nothing. This wholly repelling gesture toward entities in the whole that are slipping away in anxiety defines the nothing as such: nihilation. The nothing itself nihilates nichtet. Nihilation manifests entities in their fullness and unique. The encounter between being-there and entities is made possible by the original manifestation of the nothing. Only because the nothing is manifest on the ground of being-there can the uncanniness of entities overwhelm us and evoke wonder.
Only then can we inquire into the ground and question entities. It is only because we can question and ground things that we ourselves are put into question. In , Heidegger delivered his lecture On the Essence of Truth on different occasions. This lecture is a further development of the concept of truth in Being and Time.
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Heidegger claims that primordial truth is not the correspondence between the intellect and the matter, which is expressed in judgment. According to this traditional doctrine, the proposition that the table is white is true if the table of which being white is asserted is indeed white. As the term unconcealment indicates, the being of entities is discovered or unconcealed in truth. The truth of entities is wrested from concealment. Unconcealment is the dynamic interplay of revealment and concealment. Truth can therefore never be fully transparent. In the unconcealment of entities, being as such remains concealed.
Being-there and entities encounter each other in the openness of unconcealment.
In this openness, the play-space emerges that makes possible the distance between being-there and entities. In this open space or clearing, human beings can relate to entities. In the interplay of human beings and entities, he discovers a double-sided kind of freedom or letting-be. On the one hand, entities let themselves be in truth or. On the other hand, human beings are free to let entities be what they are in truth. Truth is essentially freedom, and as such an open relation and interaction between human beings and entities that needs to be enacted time and again.
We must experience truth and refrain from proclaiming the truth once and for all. Truth lies in the play-space between human beings and entities, where the truth of being unfolds and is appropriated. The relation between human beings and entities is determined by moods or modes of attunement. These moods can be individual or collective. In the mood of anxiety, human beings experience being as the nothing and the possible impossibility of their own existence, or death. The collective mood of deep boredom determines the being-there of modern man.
In this fundamental mood, we can hear the sound of the finitude of our existence. Heidegger will later describe the dynamic structure of unconcealment as the mirror-play of the fourfold. In Germany, the Republic of Weimar, and not the dictatorship of the proletariat, rose from the total chaos of Germany followed the way of capitalism and parliamentary democracy.
The industrial revolution had gathered momentum in Germany at the end of the 19th century and its results only became manifest in their full extent after The social relations of family, church, and village begin to lose their unifying power. Smallscale production in agriculture and manufacture could not compete with industrial production and the power of large capital. The population deserted the countryside and moved to the big cities in search of work in factories. The masses of humanity grew ever larger in the slums, where an existence worthy a of human being was impossible.
Nobody made a product; everybody performed his monotonous task as a part of the process of production. The machine determined the tempo of production, not the worker. The difference between the anonymous worker and the machine ultimately became blurred. The Weimar Republic, which had been under intense pressure from the beginning, collapsed under the stock market crash and the Great Depression that followed.
The ever-increasing problems and disasters led to a mood of crisis among the population. It finally became clear that World War I had not really solved any problems despite its horrors. The danger of a mood of crisis is that nobody feels the need for deliberation and discussion. We want only that the crisis be dealt with in an energetic fashion. A crisis demands the interference of the man of action and not the critical reflection of philosophy. The man who would answer the call for leadership of the German people had already begun his march in the beer cellars of Munich.
Crisis is a word that we should use reluctantly and carefully. All too often, the remedy turns out to be worse than the disease. Heidegger, too, was sensitive to the mood of crisis in He searched for a remedy in the hope of finding a solution. This German writer claimed that World War I marked the beginning of a new era that is determined by the will to power.
The will to power expresses itself in the striving for world domination of capitalism and communism. The total mobilization blurs the differences between the soldier and the worker. The new overman is a fighting machine. During World War I, he had experienced the massacres of the battlefields with a macabre kind of aesthetic pleasure. In an almost mystic experience, he understood the violence and horror of the trenches as the ultimate revelation of what is. He was horrified by it. Second, he rejected the metaphysical necessity of the total mobilization of the worker. Heidegger saw an important task for the German people.
Contrary to the United States and Russia, Germany was not a land of scientists and technicians, but a people of thinkers and poets. The German people needed to do battle against the total mobilization and the will to power. Heidegger rejected not only communism, but also capitalism and its parliamentary democracy. The total mobilization is made possible by technology, which is turn develops the possibilities of the mathematical science of nature. The mechanization of the world picture is a product of modernity, and began with the dream of Descartes and his quest for indubitable knowledge.
The real can only be that which I know for certain, and only that which I can calculate mathematically can I know for certain. Therefore, everything real must be measurable and thus calculable. Heidegger crossed out all of the attainments of modernity. The German people had to accomplish their task through a retrieval of the uniquely creative existence of the other people of thinkers and poets, the Greeks.
Likewise, the being-there of the German people needed to grow roots in its homeland. It was, of course,. The untenable situation of the Weimar Republic and the bankruptcy of the old university system in the early s demanded a solution. Like many Germans, Heidegger saw in the rise of National Socialism the unique possibility of a new beginning. His concept of the history of being enabled him to interpret the National Socialist revolution as a first and necessary step toward the overcoming of technology and nihilism.
When he will later reject National Socialism, he will also do so on philosophical and political grounds. The second phase starts in , with his famous lecture courses on Nietzsche. In these courses, he coupled the doctrine of the will to power with the doctrine of the eternal recurrence of the same, and he also interpreted the history of the Western world as a process of decay that itself is nihilism. In Being and Time, he has interpreted the being of entities as the readiness-tohand of equipment and the presence-at-hand of objects.
He supplements and radicalizes this interpretation with his critique of the modern age. In his search for an alternative interpretation, Heidegger will retrieve once again the philosophy of Aristotle. Aristotle had discovered the being of entities as energeia, that is, that which is working. An entity is that which works and has its efficacy: the work. Heidegger distinguishes between three kinds of work: the work of art, the work of thought, and the work of state.
As the work of art is the creation of the artist and the work of thought the creation of the. It will not come as a big surprise that, according to Heidegger, the political being-there of the German people during the Weimar Republic was cut off from a spiritual vision of the future. For this reason, he saw in the rectorate an opportunity to lead all capable forces back to this necessary process of reflection and renewal.
In this manner, he hoped also to counter the advance of unsuited persons and the threatening hegemony of the party apparatus and doctrine. On 21 April , the professors of the University of Freiburg elected Heidegger rector almost unanimously, although, with the exception of their Jewish colleagues, who were banned from voting. As a supporter of Adolf Hitler, Heidegger lent his name and efforts to the National Socialist revolution as rector. He tried to reform the university in conformity with his own ideas, which were shared to a large extent by Karl Jaspers. As late as , the whole world would join Hitler in Berlin for the Olympic Games.
Like many people, Heidegger believed Hitler would one day right the wrongs and excesses that are the unfortunate by-product of any true revolution. In this lecture, he outlined his thought on the nature of the German university, its need for transformation, and its historical mission.
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His assumption of the rectorate is the commitment to the spiritual leadership of the university. His following of teachers and students can grow strong only in a joint rootedness in the nature of the German University and its development of a philosophical vision. The leaders themselves must be led by the fate of this spiritual mission.
The university should aid the German people to fulfill its historical mission, that is, the retrieval of the awakening of Greek philosophy. This beginning still is, it does not lie in the past but stands before the German people. Greek philosophy is the source from which all sciences have sprung. The National Socialist revolution is the great awakening of the German people. The university teachers must take the lead and advance to the most extreme posts of danger amid the constant uncertainty of the world. The essential will to knowledge requires that the people be subjected to the greatest inner and outer danger in order to enjoy their true spiritual world.
The German students are on the march. The academic freedom of the old university will be replaced by a new series of obligations: the labor service, the military service, and the service of knowledge. Teachers and students must form a fighting community in service to the people in their state. All capacities of the heart and the body must be unfolded through struggle, intensified in struggle, and preserved as struggle.
At this time, he still believed. He had known Baumgarten, a distant cousin of Max Weber, personally. In , he had appointed his former student, Werner Brock, as his assistant rather than Baumgarten, because he thought Brock was the most promising and talented of the two. Fraenkel was fired, but von Hevesy could stay on. Wacker asked Heidegger to keep his resignation secret until a successor could be found.
After two failed attempts, the minister found Professor Eduard Kern willing to take over. While in the meantime Professor Adolf Lampe had been negotiating behind his back with the Ministry of Culture, Heidegger forced the issue and resigned officially as rector on 23 April He announced the news to the deans of the different departments on the same day.
They resigned as well out of solidarity. He now began to turn away from Nazism as the political reality of National Socialism. The about-face is the result of his further Nietzsche studies and of his becoming aware of the criminal character of the Nazi regime. He was deeply shocked by the lawless killings of 30 June. He distanced himself from Nazism, and formulated. Although he considered his involvement with National Socialism to be the biggest mistake of his life, he did not feel obliged to confess publicly his guilt after His writings on this period in his life, the Spiegel-Interview and the Rectorate: Facts and Thoughts, were, after all, published posthumously.
This enormous saying is not the verdict about the dying of a god. It refers to the slow decline of Greek-Christian norms and values in modern times, that is, the process of nihilism as the inner movement of Western history. The traditional values have become worthless.
However, reality is often more unruly than even great philosophers think. If all values have become worthless, then it becomes necessary to reevaluate all values. In a sense, he stood Plato on his head. We should search for values neither in the transcendent reality of the Ideas nor in heaven as the Kingdom of God, but in our natural desires and passions.
This revaluation should lead to the birth of a new human being: the overman, who has the courage to live fully without paying attention to slavish moral rules and obligations. His philosophy as a reversal of Platonism remained nihilistic, and with this insight Heidegger could take another step.
He identified the history of nihilism and the history of metaphysics from Plato until Nietzsche. This end is, at the same time, the beginning of our being without a measure in our relation to God, nature, and ourselves. The scientific question for truth has become a shameless pursuit of control over and subjection of nature and no longer attempts to do justice to nature. We have abolished the moral world and now know only the law of money and the strong. We have begun to experiment with our own bodies and accept no limitations. This implies also a self-criticism of Heidegger.
The thought that we could solve the crisis of the modern world by taking decisive action remains an expression of the will to power and only strengthens nihilism. We cannot overcome the will by force of will. This also implies that politics cannot solve the problem of nihilism. Does this mean that all hope is lost?
No, because the history of metaphysics is a distinct era that started only with Plato. The being-there of human being that has been actualized in the history of metaphysics is only a possible and not a necessary being-there. It remains tied to a certain area and a certain time. Heidegger is thus faced with two alternatives.
In non-European cultures, other ways of being-there may have been actualized. This is the reason why Heidegger attempted to start a dialogue with Chinese and Japanese philosophy on his later path of thinking. This undertaking is difficult and wrought with peril. On the one hand, European culture and technology have begun to dominate all other cultures. The second alternative is the Greek beginning of European beingthere. Greek being-there is older than metaphysics. Heidegger therefore tries to discover another possibility than that of metaphysics in.
In his retrieval of the original thinking of Anaximander, Parmenides, and Heraclitus, he finds traces of a pre-metaphysical kind of thinking and being-there. Unconcealment is the truth of being as the clearing where human beings and entities can encounter each other.
In this clearing, being reveals itself through its withdrawal into the surrounding darkness. The uniquely Greek manner of being-there, which is not so much a merit of the Greeks as a destiny of being, is the epic poetry of Homer. The voice of poetry bids all that is—world and things, earth and sky, divinities and mortals—to gather into the simplicity Einfalt of their intimate belonging together. The Greek work of thing was preceded by the work of poetry.
Since we are finite, we cannot overcome metaphysics on our own. Releasement is essentially an openness to the mystery of being. This new thinking is a commemoration of the mystery of being and a letting be of entities as they are. As such, it is an alternative to the calculative thinking. This was not a failure on their part, but the destiny of being itself. The history of metaphysics begins with Plato and Aristotle. Metaphysics has an onto-theological structure and is determined by the forgottenness of being as the concealment of its difference from entities. Philosophy is metaphysics and metaphysics is Platonism.
Nietzsche achieved the most extreme possibility in his reversal of Platonism. The completion of metaphysics is the triumph of the manipulable arrangement of a scientific technological world and its social order. The present age of nihilism is determined by the will to power and technology. He finds traces of this other beginning in early Greek thinking, mythology, and poetry.
The set of manuscripts written between and was finally published posthumously to commemorate the th anniversary of his birthday. The other beginning is the thinking of the truth of being as the clearing of self-concealment and the sheltering of its hidden mystery throughout the history of metaphysics. In the Preview, Heidegger elucidates the directives that thinking needs to follow in order to experience enowning through its dynamic of gifting refusing, that is, as the promise of rediscovering the truth of being in the wake of its historical forsaking.
He distinguishes between the guiding question of metaphysics, what is the beingness of an entity, and the basic question of inceptual thinking about the ground of metaphysics. The attunement is wonder or astonishment, the Greek thaumazein. Heidegger shows how the guiding question of metaphysics beckons thought to the basic question of the other beginning of thought. Through the leap of thought, the beingthere of human beings and expanse, where the truth of being comes.
In a careful meditation on the beckoning of the last god, Heidegger prepares for its arrival and the sheltering of its mystery. Art can teach us how we can discover the being of entities in a different way than in the calculative thinking of technology. In this sense, art may open our eyes to a different world. The aim of the lecture is to arrive at the immediate and rich possibility of the work of art in order to discover in it the abiding of truth as unconcealment.
In the first part, Thing and Work, Heidegger outlines the essential difference between a thing and a work of art. What is a thing? The concepts with which philosophy tries to understand things as things derive their meaning from the being of equipment. Equipment resembles the work of art insofar as it is the product of human work. Reliability determines the being of the shoes as equipment. The shoes are there when we need them and we can rely on them to perform their function.
When we wear our shoes, we understand what they are. It lets us know what shoes in truth are. The work of art opens up the being of entities. This opening-up is the revealment of the truth of being and happens in the work of art.
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In the work of art truth. Heidegger thus comes to the next question: what is truth as the setting-itself-to-work? In the second part, The Work and the Truth, Heidegger first discusses the way of being of the work. A work, like a Greek temple, sets up a world and at the same time sets this world back again on earth, which emerges as native ground. This setting-up of a world is making space for the worlding of world, that is, the liberation of the open and the establishment of its structure.
The work of art lets the earth be an earth, and thus makes the dwelling of human beings possible. Art and truth are joined since beauty is one of the ways in which truth occurs as unconcealment. But how does truth happen in the work of art? Heidegger tries to answer this question in the third part, Truth and Art.
The happening of the truth is the strife between world and earth. Truth happens only by establishing itself in this struggle and clearing the open. It establishes itself in the work of art as the strife between earth and world. All art as the letting happen of the advent of the truth is, as such, essentially poetry. Poetry is the saying of world and earth, the saying of the arena of their struggle, and thus the place of all nearness and farness of the gods. In its ownmost enactment poetry is the grounding of truth and may be considered from three points of view as a gift, a founding, and a beginning.
In this. More than just an academic foil, Heidegger delivered a lecture called The Turning to the club at Bremen in , along with three other lectures that would form the cornerstone of his critique of technology. Through his critique of the impending doom of technology, Heidegger stands out as one of the greatest visionaries of the 20th century. He does not simply provide a sociological-economic account of what this threat may be, but instead couples it with a criticism that extends back to the origins of Western civilization and philosophy.
A sociological-anthropological critique of what is wrong with Western culture does not cut deeply enough to address the origin of the danger that emerges on a global scale today. By the same token, thinking can no longer be an idle past-time reserved to academics.
In this way, he offers an important preview into the pivotal lectures, which he delivered on the danger of technology to the Bremen Club in Precisely because of this destructive potential, Heidegger also sees technology as an occasion to provoke thinking, that is, for the inception of mindfulness Besinnung as an awakening to our own place within. In this regard, we cannot separate Heidegger as the critic of technology from Heidegger as the meticulous and innovative interpreter of the greatest thinkers of the philosophical tradition.
In his lectures The Thing and Building Dwelling Thinking, Heidegger attempts to reply to the crisis of modernity, the danger of technology, and the homelessness of modern humankind. He therefore describes an original dwelling and being at home in the world that is rooted in a homeland. People may only dwell if there is a place where they can be at home.
Heidegger formally indicates this abode as the fourfold. It is the primordial unity of earth and sky, divinities and mortals that is unfolded and folded together time and again. The unity of the four is a mirror-play. The four do not form a static unity. The fourfold is a dynamic structure that is given form continuously. It gathers the unity of the four on the ground of the homeland and is as such a place where human beings may dwell.
The mortals dwell on the earth under the key in the oneness of the fourfold. The sky is not only the vaulting path of the sun and the course of the moon; it is also the clemency and inclemency of the weather, the change of the seasons, the light of day and the gloom of night. Earth is the serving bearer that lets things come to presence. The divinities are the messengers of the godhead. Out of its holy sway, the god appears in its presence or withdraws into absence.
In dwelling, the mortals wait for intimations of the coming of the divinities. Divinities and mortals, earth and sky are joined together in the oneness of the fourfold. Human beings are the mortals because they can die. Only humans die, and they die continuously, as long as they dwell on earth, under the sky, before the divinities.
The feast of life is celebrated in the fourfold. The being-there of human beings in the fourfold is dwelling. Dwelling gathers the fourfold into the unity of the home. It gives us an anchor that safeguards us and lets us abide in the homeland as the place where we can grow roots. In dwelling, mortals preserve the fourfold in its essential being, that is, its way of presencing. In dwelling, mortals take their measure from the way that the world fits together and lets entities show themselves as they are.
Dwelling is building a home in the world. Building as dwelling unfolds by cultivating living things and in creating different abodes or similar artifacts. For example, a bridge gathers to itself in its own way the earth and sky, divinities and mortals. The location of a bridge allows the fourfold to enter into a site by arranging it into different spaces, where everything has its place. The gift of the pouring-out can be a drink for mortals or a consecration for the divinities.
In the gift of the outpouring dwells the simple onefoldness of the fourfold. A thing gathers and unites earth and sky, divinities and mortals.
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This gathering brings the four into the light of their mutual belonging. Thing means gathering into nearness. Thinging the things gathers the united four, earth and sky, divinities and mortals, into the simple onefold of their self-unified fourfold. The four mirror each other. The appropriating mirror-play of the single onefold of earth and sky, divinities and mortals, is the world. Human beings attend in their dwelling to the world by responding in their thinking to the address of being. Dwelling designates the fundamental structure of being-there as it sojourns in nearness to entities.
Since man dwells in this dimension, it is his task to do the measuring. Language, poetry, and thinking belong together. Human beings must first let themselves be claimed by being before they can speak and take the risk that they will seldom have much to say. In this respect, speaking is first and foremost a way of hearing and responding, in which the unsaid and unspoken depths of language can reverberate in what is said.
Language achieves its completion in poetry. In poetry, it listens to the intonation of the word and thereby invites things to gather to themselves sky and earth, mortals and divinities, and thus lets the world be. By the time Heidegger passed away, on 26 May , he had become the most important and controversial philosopher of his age. The publication of the Complete Edition of his writings and lectures was under way, and his works were translated into many different languages.
His greatest legacy may not hinge on the brilliance of any single work or even on the unparalleled creativity he showed in re-interpreting the history of philosophy. Even before his prophetic insight into the danger of technology, his pathway truly endures. The singularity and steadfastness of his path directs us to what is most worthy of questioning, in order to remain with the task of thinking as such.
In his discussion of machination and technology, Heidegger describes the extreme point of the forgottenness of being as an occurrence in which entities appear exclusively in terms of their potential to be used and exploited for instrumental purposes. In this historical epoch of the dominance of modern technology, entities cease to appear in their uniqueness and singularity, but instead manifest themselves only one-dimensionally in terms of their instrumental value. The mystery inherent in the concealment of being includes a nuance of hesitation, refusal, or reservedness.
The mystery of being precludes the establishment of an absolute ground for entities, in the sense that metaphysics might ascribe to a supreme entity or God. The refusal and staying away of a ground also implies the role that absence plays, as well as presence, in determining the dynamic of temporality. When confronting the threshold of death, the self may experience this lack of ground as an abyss. Absence as a dimension of the concealment of being is the condition of possibility of the presence of entities. Being-there is the nothingness or clearing in which entities can be present.
In the unconcealment of entities, being itself remains concealed. This addition to the publisher's Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements series by Johnson, Walker, and Gray represents a substantial revision of the first edition, coauthored by Walker and Gray, with more than pages of newly added material.
The 'Chronology' section from the first edition is greatly expanded in this volume to include more details of the international impact of Marxism on political and labor movements; it is particularly compelling to see how Marxism in one country may have directly impacted its growth in another. The work also offers much more detail about Marxists and Marxist political parties in non-European countries, and provides a larger number of biographical entries. The volume concludes with a lengthy bibliography of resources that has also been updated.
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